Logística de Carga y Transporte
Types of Cargo
The handling of cargo is extremely importation in the logistics of exportation since the cargo can be affected by the way it is treated, causing very serious damages for the exporter. In order to guarantee adequate handling, the cargo must be classified in the following types:
- Stowed Cargo requires the protection of packing or a receptacle due to its nature.
- Loose Cargo does not need stowing, for example, rails, pipes, automobile tires, parts, etc.
- Consolidated/Unitized Cargo comes in just one package or pallet to be manipulated in a single operation.
- Pre-slinged Cargo has a standardized package and comes ready to be hooked, generally part of a big lot.
- Palletized goods, merchandise of one kind with standardized packing, grouped and insured on a pallet, making just one pack ,ready to be handled.
- Bulk Cargo does not need stowing and in general are large quantities in specialized containers.
- Solids, including grain, coal, iron minerals, wood, cement, bauxite, salt, etc.
- Liquids, such as petroleum, lubricants, gasoline and tallow.
- Gases, including propane, butane and others.
- Special Cargo, needing special handling due to its nature and/or conservation
Types of Containers
Exports, in general, are placed in containers, or cargo recipients designed for national or international transportation by sea, river or air. The size and shape of the containers vary as a function of need, each one of the kinds of containers is regulated pursuant to rule ISO-668-2. The different kinds of containers are:
Dry Van, for normal dry cargo.
High Cube – HC, also used for dry cargo, only in 40-foot size. Unlike a traditional 40-foot container, it is taller, allowing more volume capacity while maintaining the traditional weight.
Open Top – OP, has a removable top for handling very large cargo which cannot fit in the container door.
Bulk – BLK, designed for bulk cargo, only in 20-foot size, suitable for chemicals, fertilizers, some kinds of flour, sugar, salt and other products.
Flatrack- Foldable Platforms, designed to insert hard-to-manage cargo with no sidewalls. Due to its nature, it has no open door indicators.
Open Side – OS, similar to Open Top but instead of having a top opening, it can be opened on one side. Only in 20-foot size.
Reefer – RF, has its own refrigeration equipment, mostly used for perishable goods or goods requiring a controlled temperature.
Reefer High Cube – RH, utilized for cargo requiring refrigeration, only in 40-foot size. Unlike a traditional 40-foot reefer, this is taller, allowing for greater volume capacity while maintaining the traditional weight.
Iso Tank – ISO, in 20-foot designs, a tank container for transporting bulk liquids.